Erasme, 1469-1536 PDF

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Il a écrit plus que les écrivains les plus prolifiques, plus que Voltaire, plus que Victor Hugo et aujourd’hui des programmes d’études portent son nom. Figure centrale de l’humanisme, il apparaît comme le symbole de l’Europe. Érasme (1469-1536) marque profondément la culture de son temps en tentant de concilier, en particulier, l’étude des Anciens et l’enseignement de l’Évangile. Infatigable voyageur, mais à la santé fragile, grand ami de l’Anglais Thomas More et opposé à l’intransigeance religieuse de Luther, il aime à travailler sur le langage, parcourant la Bible mais aussi se livrant à un iconoclaste Éloge de la Folie qui a su traverser les siècles avec son ironie mordante et n’a cessé d’intriguer les commentateurs. De la bonne folie, il écrit qu’elle  » se produit quand une agréable illusion de l’esprit délivre l’âme de ses soucis angoissants et l’inonde d’un plaisir multiple « . Réviseur du Nouveau Testament à l’époque où l’on redécouvre la Bible, Érasme a le souci de communiquer celui-ci au plus grand nombre :  » je suis tout à fait opposé, écrit-il, à l’avis de ceux qui ne veulent pas que les lettres divines soient traduites en langue vulgaire pour être lues par les profanes, comme si l’enseignement du Christ était si voilé que seule une poignée de théologiens pouvait le comprendre…  » Avec clarté et érudition, Daniel Ménager présente la modernité d’un personnage qui dénonça aussi, avec vigueur, les croisades inutiles et les guerres de conquête.

La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 7 janvier 2019 à 17:13. Erasmus died suddenly in Basel in 1536 while preparing to return to Brabant, and was buried in Basel Minster, the former cathedral of the city. Desiderius Erasmus is reported to have been born in Rotterdam on 28 October in the late 1460s. He was named after Saint Erasmus of Formiae, whom Erasmus’s father Gerard personally favored. The exact year of his birth is controversial, but most agree it was in 1466. Evidence confirming the year of Erasmus’ birth in 1466 can be found in his own words: fifteen out of twenty-three statements he made about his age indicate 1466.

Erasmus was given the highest education available to a young man of his day, in a series of monastic or semi-monastic schools. Portrait of Desiderius Erasmus by Albrecht Dürer, 1526, engraved in Nuremberg, Germany. Most likely in 1487, poverty forced Erasmus into the consecrated life as a canon regular of St. While at Stein, Erasmus fell in love with a fellow canon, Servatius Rogerus, and wrote a series of passionate letters in which he called Rogerus « half my soul ». He wrote, « I have wooed you both unhappily and relentlessly ». Soon after his priestly ordination, he got his chance to leave the canonry when offered the post of secretary to the Bishop of Cambrai, Henry of Bergen, on account of his great skill in Latin and his reputation as a man of letters.

Bronze statue of Erasmus in Rotterdam. It was created by Hendrick de Keyser in 1622, replacing a stone statue of 1557. In 1495, with Bishop Henry’s consent and a stipend, Erasmus went on to study at the University of Paris, in the Collège de Montaigu, a centre of reforming zeal, under the direction of the ascetic Jan Standonck, of whose rigors he complained. Until the early 20th-century, Queens’ College used to have a corkscrew that was purported to be « Erasmus’ corkscrew » which was a third of a metre long, though today the college still has what it calls « Erasmus’ chair ». During his first visit to England in 1499, he taught at the University of Oxford. Erasmus was particularly impressed by the Bible teaching of John Colet who pursued a style more akin to the church fathers than the Scholastics. I cannot tell you, dear Colet, how I hurry on, with all sails set, to holy literature.

How I dislike everything that keeps me back, or retards me ». Despite a chronic shortage of money, he succeeded in learning Greek by an intensive, day-and-night study of three years, continuously begging his friends to send him books and money for teachers in his letters. Discovery in 1506 of Lorenzo Valla’s New Testament Notes encouraged Erasmus to continue the study of the New Testament. Erasmus preferred to live the life of an independent scholar and made a conscious effort to avoid any actions or formal ties that might inhibit his freedom of intellect and literary expression. Throughout his life, he was offered positions of honor and profit in academia but declined them all, preferring the uncertain but sufficient rewards of independent literary activity. His residence at Leuven, where he lectured at the University, exposed Erasmus to much criticism from those ascetics, academics and clerics hostile to the principles of literary and religious reform and the loose norms of the Renaissance adherents to which he was devoting his life. Only when he had mastered Latin did he begin to express himself on major contemporary themes in literature and religion.

He felt called upon to use his learning in a purification of the doctrine by returning to the historic documents and original languages of sacred Scripture. In 1502, Spain, Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros had put together a team of Spanish translators to create a Compilation of a Bible in four languages, Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic and Latin. Translators for Greek were commissioned from Greece itself and worked closely with prestigious Latinists and thalamic scholars. The information and the delay allowed Erasmus to request a « Publication Privilege » of four years for the Greek New Testament to ensure that his work would be published first. He obtained it in 1516 from both Pope Leo X, to whom he’d dedicate his work, and Emperor Maximilian I. It is hard to say if Erasmus’s actions had an effect on delaying the publication of Complutensian Polyglot, causing the Spanish team to take more time, or if it made no difference in their perfectionism.

The Spanish copy was approved for publication by the Pope in 1520, however, it wasn’t released until 1522, due to the team’s insistence on reviewing and editing. Erasmus had been working for years on two projects: a collation of Greek texts and a fresh Latin New Testament. In 1512, he began his work on this Latin New Testament. He collected all the Vulgate manuscripts he could find to create a critical edition.

He declared, « It is only fair that Paul should address the Romans in somewhat better Latin. My mind is so excited at the thought of emending Jerome’s text, with notes, that I seem to myself inspired by some god. I have already almost finished emending him by collating a large number of ancient manuscripts, and this I am doing at enormous personal expense. While his intentions for publishing a fresh Latin translation are clear, it is less clear why he included the Greek text.

In a way it is legitimate to say that Erasmus « synchronized » or « unified » the Greek and the Latin traditions of the New Testament by producing an updated translation of both simultaneously. Both being part of canonical tradition, he clearly found it necessary to ensure that both were actually present in the same content. In modern terminology, he made the two traditions « compatible ». Erasmus said it was « rushed into print rather than edited », resulting in a number of transcription errors. Testamentum was used instead of Instrumentum.