Poorly designed human-machine interfaces can lead to many unexpected problems. A classic example is the Three Mile Island accident, a nuclear meltdown accident, where investigations concluded that the design of the human-machine interface was at least partly responsible for the disaster. Methods for designing new computer interfaces, thereby optimizing a design for a desired property such as learnability, findability, efficiency of use. Methods for evaluating and comparing interfaces dialogue homme-machine multimodal PDF respect to their usability and other desirable properties.
Notre manière de percevoir les objets qui nous entourent détermine nos choix langagiers et gestuels pour les désigner. Les gestes que nous produisons structurent notre espace visuel, les mots que nous utilisons modifient à leur tour notre manière de percevoir. Perception visuelle, langage et geste entretiennent ainsi de multiples interactions. Il s’agit bien d’une seule problématique qui doit être appréhendée globalement, premièrement pour comprendre la complexité des phénomènes de référence aux objets, deuxièmement pour en déduire une modélisation informatique exploitable dans tout système de dialogue homme-machine qui se veut un tant soit peu compréhensif. Cet ouvrage explore ces deux étapes à l’aide d’un modèle à la fois cognitif et formel, celui des » domaines de référence « . Il décrit la nature et le fonctionnement de ces domaines de référence, ainsi que la manière dont un système de dialogue peut les gérer et les exploiter pour accroître ses capacités de compréhension. Ce travail pluridisciplinaire s’attache ainsi à identifier et à formaliser l’implicite dans la communication.
Methods for studying human computer use and its sociocultural implications more broadly. Methods for determining whether or not the user is human or computer. Models and theories of human computer use as well as conceptual frameworks for the design of computer interfaces, such as cognitivist user models, Activity Theory or ethnomethodological accounts of human computer use. Perspectives that critically reflect upon the values that underlie computational design, computer use and HCI research practice. Visions of what researchers in the field seek to achieve vary. When pursuing a cognitivist perspective, researchers of HCI may seek to align computer interfaces with the mental model that humans have of their activities. When pursuing a post-cognitivist perspective, researchers of HCI may seek to align computer interfaces with existing social practices or existing sociocultural values.
Researchers in HCI are interested in developing design methodologies, experimenting with devices, prototyping software and hardware systems, exploring interaction paradigms, and developing models and theories of interaction. This section does not cite any sources. HCI differs from human factors and ergonomics as HCI focuses more on users working specifically with computers, rather than other kinds of machines or designed artifacts. HCI also differs from human factors in that there is less of a focus on repetitive work-oriented tasks and procedures, and much less emphasis on physical stress and the physical form or industrial design of the user interface, such as keyboards and mouse devices. Three areas of study have substantial overlap with HCI even as the focus of inquiry shifts. The user interacts directly with hardware for the human input and output such as displays, e.
Software and hardware must be matched, so that the processing of the user input is fast enough, the latency of the computer output is not disruptive to the workflow. Empirical measurement: Test the interface early on with real users who come in contact with the interface on a daily basis. Repeat the iterative design process until a sensible, user-friendly interface is created. Most design methodologies stem from a model for how users, designers, and technical systems interact. Activity theory: used in HCI to define and study the context in which human interactions with computers take place. Activity theory provides a framework to reason about actions in these contexts, analytical tools with the format of checklists of items that researchers should consider, and informs design of interactions from an activity-centric perspective.
Users, designers and technical practitioners work together to articulate the needs and limitations of the user and create a system that addresses these elements. Principles of user interface design: these principles may be considered at any time during the design of a user interface in any order: tolerance, simplicity, visibility, affordance, consistency, structure and feedback. VSD uses an iterative design process that involves three types of investigations: conceptual, empirical and technical. Displays are human-made artifacts designed to support the perception of relevant system variables and to facilitate further processing of that information.
13 principles of display design in their book An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering. These principles of human perception and information processing can be utilized to create an effective display design. A reduction in errors, a reduction in required training time, an increase in efficiency, and an increase in user satisfaction are a few of the many potential benefits that can be achieved through utilization of these principles. Certain principles may not be applicable to different displays or situations. Some principles may seem to be conflicting, and there is no simple solution to say that one principle is more important than another.
The principles may be tailored to a specific design or situation. Striking a functional balance among the principles is critical for an effective design. A display’s legibility is critical and necessary for designing a usable display. If the characters or objects being displayed cannot be discernible, then the operator cannot effectively make use of them. These sensory variables can contain many possible levels. Signals are likely perceived and interpreted in accordance with what is expected based on a user’s experience. If a signal is presented contrary to the user’s expectation, more physical evidence of that signal may need to be presented to assure that it is understood correctly.