Averroès: Ibn Rushd PDF

Averroes depicted in a painting by Italian artist Andrea averroès: Ibn Rushd PDF Bonaiuto. Latin translations of Averroes’ work became widely available at the universities which were springing up in Western Europe in the 13th century, and were received by scholasticists such as Siger of Brabant, Boetius of Dacia who examined Christian doctrines through reasoning and intellectual analysis.


The term Averroist was coined by Thomas Aquinas in the restricted sense of the Averroists’ « unity of the intellect » doctrine in his book De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas. The reception of Averroes in Jewish thought has been termed « Jewish Averroism ». Jewish Averroist thought flourished in the later 14th century, and gradually declined in the course of the 15th century. The last representative of Jewish Averroism was Elia del Medigo, writing in 1485. The standpoints listed above resulted in two condemnations in 1270 and 1277 by bishop Etienne Tempier of the Roman Catholic Church.

To resolve the problem, Siger of Brabant claimed that there existed a « double truth »: a factual or « hard » truth that is reached through science and philosophy, and a « religious » truth that is reached through religion. This idea differed from that of Averroës: he taught that there is only one truth, but reached in two different ways, not two truths. The later philosophical concept of Averroism was the idea that the philosophical and religious worlds are separate entities. However, upon scrutinizing the 219 theses condemned by Tempier, it was obvious that not many of them originated in Averroës.

Thomas Aquinas specifically attacked the « unity of the intellect » doctrine held by the Averroists in his book De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas. Gersonides wrote a supercommentary on Averroes’ Aristotelian commentaries. The decline of Kalam or « Islamic scholastic theology » and Muʿtazila or « Islamic rationalism » has precluded a reception of Aveorres in Islamic thought that would parallel that in Christian or Jewish philosophy. Muslim Scholar, Philosopher, and Physician of the Twelfth Century. Averroës » in Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Averroes « was probably the most widely condemned thinker in the medieval Christian world Averroism became virtually synonymous with atheism in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance.